Monthly Archives: August 2011
Praise be to Allaah, Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his family and companions.
“Eid” is an Arabic word referring to something habitual, that returns and is repeated. Eids or festivals are symbols to be found in every nation, including those that are based on revealed scriptures and those that are idolatrous, as well as others, because celebrating festivals is something that is an instinctive part of human nature. All people like to have special occasions to celebrate, where they can come together and express their joy and happiness.
The festivals of the kaafir nations may be connected to worldly matters, such as the beginning of the year, the start of an agricultural season, the changing of the weather, the establishment of a state, the accession of a ruler, and so on. They may also be connected to religious occasions, like many of the festivals belonging exclusively to the Jews and Christians, such as the Thursday on which they claim the table was sent down to Jesus, Christmas, New Year’s, Thanksgiving, and holidays on which gifts are exchanged. These are celebrated in all European and North American countries nowadays, and in other countries where Christian influence is prevalent, even if the country is not originally Christian. Some so-called Muslims may also join in these holidays, out of ignorance or hypocrisy.
The Magians (Zoroastrians) also have their own festivals, such as Mahrajaan, Nowruz and so on.
The Baatinis have their own festivals too, such as “Eid al-Ghadeer”, when they claim that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave the khilaafah to ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) and to the twelve imaams after him.
The Muslims are distinguished by their festivals
The Prophet’s words “Every nation has its festival, and this is your festival” indicate that these two Eids are exclusively for the Muslims, and that it is not permissible for Muslims to imitate the kuffaar and mushrikeen in anything that is a distinctive part of their celebrations, whether it be food, dress, bonfires or acts of worship. Muslim children should not be allowed to play on those kaafir festivals, or to put up decorations, or to join in with the kuffaar on those occasions. All kaafir or innovated festivals are haraam, such as Independence Day celebrations, anniversaries of revolutions, holidays celebrating trees or accessions to the throne, birthdays, Labour Day, the Nile festival, Shimm al-Naseem (Egyptian spring holiday), teachers’ day, and al-Mawlood al-Nabawi (Prophet’s Birthday).
The Muslims have no festivals apart from Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhaa, because of the hadeeth narrated from Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and the people had two days when they would play and have fun. He said, ‘What are these two days?’ They said, ‘We used to play and have fun on these days during the Jaahiliyyah. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Allaah has given you something better than them, the day of Adhaa and the day of Fitr.’”
(Sunan Abi Dawood, 1134)
These two Eids are among the signs or symbols of Allaah which we must celebrate and understand the aims and meanings behind them.
There follows a discussion of some of the rulings and manners of the two Eids according to Islamic sharee’ah
1 – Ahkaam al-Eid (Rulings on Eid)
It is haraam to fast on the days of Eid because of the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade fasting on the day of Fitr and the day of Sacrifice (Adhaa).
(Reported by Muslim, 827)
Ruling on the Eid prayers
Some of the scholars say that Eid prayers are waajib (obligatory) – this is the view of the Hanafi scholars and of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him). They say that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always prayed the Eid prayer and never omitted to do it, not even once. They take as evidence the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), “Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only)” [al-Kawthar 108:2], i.e., the Eid prayer and the sacrifice after it, which is an instruction, and the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ordered that the women should be brought out to attend the Eid prayers, and that a woman who did not have a jilbaab should borrow one from her sister. Some scholars say that Eid prayer is fard kifaaya. This is the view of the Hanbalis. A third group say that Eid prayer is sunnah mu’akkadah. This is the view of the Maalikis and Shaafa’is. They take as evidence the hadeeth of the Bedouin which says that Allaah has not imposed any prayers on His slaves other than the five daily prayers. So the Muslim should be keen to attend Eid prayers, especially since the opinion that it is waajib is based on strong evidence. The goodness, blessings and great reward one gets from attending Eid prayers, and the fact that one is following the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by doing so, should be sufficient motivation.
Essentials and timing of Eid prayer
Some scholars (the Hanafis and Hanbalis) say that the conditions of Eid prayer are that the iqaamah should be recited and the prayer should be offered in jamaa’ah (congregation). Some of them said that the conditions of Eid prayer are the same as the conditions for Friday prayer, with the exception of the khutbah, attendance at which is not obligatory. The majority of scholars say that the time for the Eid prayer starts when the sun has risen above the height of a spear, as seen by the naked eye, and continues until the sun is approaching its zenith.
Description of the Eid prayer
‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The prayer of Eid and al-Adhaa is two complete rak’ahs, not shortened. This is according to the words of your Prophet, and the liar is doomed.”
Abu Sa’eed said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out to the prayer-place on the day of Fitr and al-Adhaa, and the first thing he would do was the prayer.”
The Takbeer is repeated seven times in the first rak’ah and five times in the second, the Qur’aan is to be recited after each.
It was reported from ‘Aa’ishah: the Takbeer of al-Fitr and al-Adhaa is seven in the first rak’ah and five in the second, apart from the takbeer of rukoo’.
(Reported by Abu Dawood; saheeh by the sum of its isnaads)
If a person joining the prayer catches up with the imaam during these extra takbeeraat, he should say “Allaahu akbar” with the imaam, and he does not have to make up any takbeeraat he may have missed, because they are sunnah, not waajib. With regard to what should be said between the takbeeraat, Hammaad ibn Salamah reported from Ibraaheem that Waleed ibn ‘Uqbah entered the mosque when Ibn Mas’ood, Hudhayfah and Abu Moosa were there, and said, “Eid is here, what should I do?” Ibn Mas’ood said: “Say ‘Allaahu akbar’, praise and thank Allaah, send blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and make du’aa’, then say Say ‘Allaahu akbar’, praise and thank Allaah, send blessings on the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)…etc.”
(Reported by al-Tabaraani. It is a saheeh hadeeth that is quoted in al-Irwaa’ and elsewhere).
Recitation of Qur’aan in Eid prayers
It is recommended (mustahabb) that in the Eid prayers the imaam should recite Qaaf [soorah 50] and Aqtarabat al-saa’ah [al-Qamar, soorah 54], as it is reported in Saheeh Muslim that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab asked Abu Waaqid al-Laythi, “What did the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite at [Eid] al-Adhaa and al-Fitr?” He said, “He used to recite Qaaf. Wa’l-Qur’aan al-majeed [Qaaf 50:1] and Aqtarabat al-saa’ah wa anshaqq al-qamar [al-Qamar 54:1].
Most of the reports indicate that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite Soorat al-A’laa  and Soorat al-Ghaashiyah , as he used to recite them in the Friday prayer. Al-Nu’maan ibn Bishr said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite on the two Eids and on Fridays, Sabbih isma rabbika’l-a’laa [al-A’laa 87:1] and Hal ataaka hadeeth al-ghaashiyah [al-Ghaashiyah 88:1].”
(Saheeh Muslim, 878).
Samurah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite on the two Eids, Sabbih isma rabbika’l-a’laa [al-A’laa 87:1] and Hal ataaka hadeeth al-ghaashiyah [al-Ghaashiyah 88:1].”
(Reported by Ahmad and others; it is saheeh. Al-Irwaa’, 3/116)
The prayer comes before the khutbah
One of the rulings of Eid is that the prayer should come before the khutbah, as is reported in Musnad Ahmad from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas, who testified that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed before the khutbah on Eid, then he gave the khutbah.”
(Musnad Ahmad, 1905. The hadeeth is also in al-Saheehayn).
Another indication that the khutbah should be after the prayer is the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed (may Allaah be pleased with him): “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to go out to the prayer-place on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adhaa, and the first thing he would do was to pray, then he would stand up facing the people, whilst they were still sitting in their rows, and would advise and instruct them. If he wanted to send out a military expedition, he would decide about the matter then, or if he wanted to issue a command, he would do it then.” Abu Sa’eed said: “This is what the people continued to do until I came out [to the Eid prayers] with Marwaan, when he was governor of Madeenah, on either Adhaa or Fitr. When we reached the prayer-place, we saw the minbar, which had been built by Katheer ibn al-Salt. Marwaan wanted to get on the minbar before the prayer. I pulled on his cloak, and he pulled on mine in return, then he got on the minbar and gave the khutbah before the prayer. I said, ‘You have changed it, by Allaah!’ He said, ‘O Abu Sa’eed, what you know is gone.’ I said, ‘What I know, by Allaah, is better than what I do not know.’ He said, ‘The people will not remain sitting after the prayer, so we made it [the khutbah] before the prayer.’”
(Reported by al-Bukhaari, 956).
Anyone who wants to leave during the khutbah is allowed to do so
‘Abd-Allaah ibn al-Saa’ib said: “I attended Eid with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when he finished the prayer, he said: “We will give the khutbah, so whoever wants to sit (and listen to) the khutbah, let him sit, and whoever wants to leave, let him go.’”
(Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/96)
Not delaying the prayer for too long
‘Abd-Allaah ibn Bishr, the companion of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), went out with the people on the day of Fitr or al-Adhaa, and objected to the fact that the imaam came very late. He said, “At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) we would have finished by now,” and that was at the time of al-Tasbeeh .”
(Reported by al-Bukhaari )
Naafil prayers in the prayer-place
There are no naafil prayers to be done either before or after the Eid prayer, as Ibn ‘Abbaas reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to come out on the day of Eid and pray two rak’ahs, with nothing before or after them.
This is the case if the prayer is offered in a prayer place or public place. If, however, the people pray the Eid prayer in a mosque, then they should pray two rak’ahs for Tahiyat al-Masjid (“Greeting the mosque”) before sitting down.
If people did not know about Eid until the next day
Abu ‘Umayr ibn Anas reported from his paternal uncles among the Ansaar who said: “It was cloudy and we could not see the new moon of Shawwaal, so we started the day fasting, then a caravan came at the end of the day and told the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that they had seen the new moon of Shawwaal the day before, so he told the people to stop fasting, and they went out to pray the Eid prayer the next day.”
(Reported by the five. It is saheeh; al-Irwaa’, 3/102)
If someone misses the Eid prayer, the most correct view is that he may make it up by praying two rak’ahs.
Women’s attendance at Eid prayers
Hafsah said: “We used to prevent prepubescent girls from attending Eid prayers. Then a woman came and stayed at the fort of Banu Khalaf, and told us about her sister. Her sister’s husband had taken part in twelve campaigns with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and [she said], ‘my sister was with him on six of them. She said, “We used to treat the wounded and take care of the sick. My sister asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) whether there was anything wrong with her not going out [on Eid] if she did not have a jilbaab. He said, ‘Let her friend give her one of her jilbaabs so that she may witness the blessings of Eid and see the Muslims gathering.’”’ When Um ‘Atiyah came, I asked her, ‘Did you hear the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) [say this]?’ She said, ‘May my father be sacrificed for him’ – and she never mentioned him without saying ‘may my father be sacrificed for him’ – ‘I heard him saying that we should bring out the young girls and those who were secluded, or the young girls who were secluded, and the menstruating women, so that they could witness the blessings of Eid and see the gathering of the believers, but those who were menstruating were to keep away from the prayer-place itself.”
(Saheeh al-Bukhaari, 324).
The ‘young girls’ (‘awaatiq, sing. ‘aatiq) are girls who have reached adolescence or are close to it, or have reached the age of marriage, or are very precious to their families, or who are spared from having to do humiliating work. It appears that they used to prevent these young girls from going out because of the corruption that arose after the first generation of Islam; but the Sahaabah did not approve of that and they thought that the ruling should remain in their time as it had been during the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Where it says “My sister was with him” it seems that there is something omitted, probably “the woman said”. [This is reflected in the translation above. Translator].…
“Her jilbaabs” – she should lend her some of her clothes that she does not need.
“Secluded” – they would have a curtain in the corner of the house behind which virgins would stay.
“Menstruating women” – huyyad, sing. haa’id – this may refer either to girls who have reached the age of puberty, or women who are having their period and are not taahir (pure).
“Menstruating women should avoid the prayer-place itself” – Ibn al-Munayyir said: “The reason why they should avoid the prayer-place is that if they stand with the women who are praying even though they are not praying, it may appear that they have no respect for the prayer or are careless, so it better for them to avoid that.”
It was said that the reason why menstruating women should avoid the prayer-place is as a precaution, so that women will not come near men for no reason if they are not praying, or so that they will not offend others with their blood or their odour.
The hadeeth urges everyone to attend Eid prayer, and to co-operate with one another in righteousness and piety. The menstruating woman should not forsake the remembrance of Allaah or places of goodness such as gatherings for the purpose of seeking knowledge and remembering Allaah – apart from mosques. The hadeeth also indicates that women should not go out without a jilbaab.
This hadeeth tells us that it is not proper for young women and women in seclusion to go out except for a valid reason. It states that it is preferable (mustahabb) for a woman to wear a jilbaab, and that it is permissible to lend and borrow clothes. It also indicates that Eid prayer is obligatory (waajib).
Ibn Abi Shaybah also narrated that Ibn ‘Umar used to take whoever he could of his household out to the Eid prayers.
The hadeeth of Umm ‘Atiyah also states the reason for the ruling, which is so that women may witness the blessings of Eid, see the gathering of the Muslims, and share the blessings and purification of this day.
Al-Tirmidhi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Sunan, after quoting the hadeeth of Umm ‘Atiyah: “Some of the scholars referred to this hadeeth and allowed women to go out to the Eid prayers, and some of them disliked this. It was reported that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn al-Mubaarak said: ‘I do not like for women to go out to Eid prayers nowadays. If a woman insists on going out, her husband should let her, if she goes out wearing her shabbiest clothes and not adorning herself. If she insists on adorning herself, then she should not go out. In this case the husband has the right to stop her from going out. It was reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: ‘If the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had seen what has happened to women, he would have stopped them from going to the mosques, just as the women of Bani Israa’eel were stopped.’ It was reported that Sufyaan al-Thawri did not like women to go to the Eid prayers in his day.”
Umm ‘Atiyah gave her fatwa in the hadeeth mentioned above a while after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had died, and it is not reported that any of the Sahaabah disagreed with this. The words of ‘Aa’ishah, “If the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had seen what has happened to women, he would have stopped them from going to the mosques”, do not contradict this (provided that women are meeting the Islamic conditions attached to their going out)… It is better if permission is given only to those women who are not who are not going to look at men or be looked at, whose attendence will not lead to anything undesirable and who are not going to rub shoulders with men on the street or in the mosque. (i.e., women whose going out will not cause fitnah or temptation to her or to men).
Men should check on their womenfolk when they going out for the prayer to make sure that their hijaab is complete, because they are the “shepherds” who are responsible for their “flocks”. Women should go out in shabby clothes, not adorned or wearing perfume. Menstruating women should not enter the mosque or prayer-place; they can wait in the car, for example, where they can hear the khutbah.
Aadaab al-Eid (Etiquette of Eid)
Ghusl (taking a bath)
One of the manners of Eid is to take a bathe before going out to the prayer. It is reported in a saheeh report in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to take a bath on the day of al-Fitr before coming to the prayer-place.
It was reported that Sa’eed ibn Jubayr said: “Three things are sunnah on Eid: to walk (to the prayer-place), to take a bath and to eat before coming out.” This is what Sa’eed ibn Jubayr said, and he may have learned this from some of the Sahaabah.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned that the scholars were agreed that it is mustahabb to take a bath before the Eid prayer.
The reason why it is mustahabb to take a bath before Friday prayer and other public gatherings also applies in the case of Eid, only more so.
Eating before coming out
One should not come out to the prayer-place on Eid al-Fitr before eating some dates, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik who said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… and he would eat an odd number.”
It is mustahabb to eat before coming out because this confirms that we are not allowed to fast on this day, and demonstrates that the fast is now over. Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) explained that this is to prevent people extending the fast and it also means obeying the commandment of Allaah.
(Fath, 2/446). If a person does not have any dates, he can eat anything permissible for breakfast. On Eid al-Adhaa, on the other hand, it is mustahabb not to eat until after the prayer, when one should eat from the meat of one’s sacrifice.
Takbeer on the day of Eid
This is one of the greatest sunnahs of this day, because of the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning): “… (He [Allaah] wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah (say Takbeer – ‘Allaahu akbar’) for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.” [al-Baqarah 2:185]
Al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: “I asked al-Oozaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer aloud on Eid. They said, ‘Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it aloud on the day of Fitr until the imaam came out.’”
Abu ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Salami said: “On Eid al-Fitr they would say it louder than on Eid al-Adhaa.” Wakee’ said, “i.e., the takbeer.”
Al-Daaraqutni and others reported that when Ibn ‘Umar came out on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adhaa, he would strive hard in making Takbeer until he reached the prayer-place, then he would continue making Takbeer until the imaam came.
Ibn Abi Shaybah reported with a saheeh isnaad that al-Zuhri said: “The people used to make Takbeer on Eid when they came out of their houses until they reached the prayer-place and until the imaam came out. When the imaam came out, they fell silent, until the imaam said Takbeer, then they said Takbeer.”
The practice of making Takbeer from home to the prayer-place, and until the imaam comes in, was well-known among the salaf and was reported by a number of authors such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd al-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in his book Ahkaam al-‘Eidayn from a group of the salaf. An example of this is the report that Naafi’ ibn Jubayr used to make Takbeer and wondered why people did not do so. He would say to people, “Why do you not make Takbeer?” Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri said, “The people used to make Takbeer from the time they left their homes until the imaam came in.”
The time for making Takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night of Eid until the time when the imaam comes in to lead the prayer.
The wording of the Takbeer
Ibn Abi Shaybah reported in al-Musannaf that Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) used to say Takbeer on the days of Tashreeq as follows: “Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great… there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most Great, and to Allaah be praise).” Ibn Abi Shaybah reported it elsewhere with the same isnaad, but with the phrase “Allaahu akbar” repeated three times.
Al-Muhaamili also reported that Ibn Mas’ood used to say: “Allaahu akbaru kabeeran, Allaahu akbaru kabeeran, Allaahu akbar wa ajall, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaahi’l-hamd (Allaah is Most Great of All, Allaah is Most Great of all, Allaah is most Great and Most Glorious, and to Allaah be praise).”
Congratulating one another
People may exchange congratulations and good greetings on Eid, no matter what form the words take. For example they may say to one another, “Taqabbal Allaahu minnaa wa minkum (May Allaah accept [the fast and worship] from us and from you” or “Eid mubarak” and other similar permissible greetings.
Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: “At the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when people met one another on the day of Eid, they would say, ‘Taqabbal Allaahu minnaa wa minka (May Allaah accept from us and from you).’”
(Ibn Hajar. Its isnaad is hasan. Fath, 2/446).
The practice of exchanging greetings was well-known at the time of the Sahaabah and scholars such as Imaam Ahmad and others allowed it. There are reports which indicate that it is permissible to congratulate people on special occasions. The Sahaabah used to congratulate one another when something good happened, such as when Allaah accepted a person’s repentance and so on.
There is no doubt that congratulating others in this way is one of the noblest kinds of good manners and one of the highest social qualities among Muslims.
At the very least, one can return Eid greetings when they are given to you, and remain silent if nothing is said, as Imaam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “If someone congratulates me, I return the greeting, but I do not initiate it.”
Looking one’s best for Eid
‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “ ‘Umar picked up a jubbah (long outer garment) made of silk that was for sale in the market, brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, buy this and wear it for Eid and when the delegations come.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “This is the clothing of the one who has no share of the Hereafter…”
(Reported by al-Bukhaari, 948).
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of ‘Umar’s idea of looking one’s best, but he rejected and denounced the idea of buying this jubbah because it was made of silk.
Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a jubbah that he would wear on Eid and on Fridays.”
(Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1765).
Al-Bayhaqi reported that Ibn Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid, so men should wear the best clothes they have when they go out for Eid.
Women, on the other hand, should avoid adornment when they go out for Eid, because they are prohibited from showing their adornment in front of non-mahrem men. A woman who wants to go out is forbidden to wear perfume or to show off in a tempting way in front of men, because she is only going out for the purpose of worship. Do you think that it is right for a believing woman to disobey the One Whom she is going out to worship and go against His commands by wearing attention-grabbing tight and brightly coloured clothes or by putting on perfume and so on?
Ruling on listening to the Eid khutbah
Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his book al-Kaafi (p. 234):
“When the imaam has said the salaam (at the end of the prayer), he should give a khutbah in two parts, like the two Friday khutbahs, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did this. (The Eid khutbah) differs from the Friday khutbahs in four ways … the fourth of which is: that it is sunnah and it is not obligatory to listen to it, because it was reported that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn al-Saa’ib said: “I attended Eid with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and when he had finished the prayer, he said: “We are going to give a khutbah, so whoever wishes to sit (and listen) to the khutbah, let him sit down, and whoever wants to leave, let him go.’”
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his book al-Majmoo’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, p. 23: “It is mustahabb for people to listen to the khutbah, although the khutbah and listening to it are not essential conditions of the Eid prayer. But al-Shaafa’i said: ‘If someone does not listen to the khutbah of Eid, at the time of an eclipse, when prayers for rain are offered, or during Hajj, or he speaks during one of these khutbahs, or leaves, I would not like this, but he does not have to repeat the prayer.”
In al-Sharh al-Mumti’ ‘ala Zaad al-Mustanfi’ by Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 5/192, it says:
“[Ibn Qudaamah’s] words, ‘like the two Friday khutbahs’ means that he should give two khutbahs, even though there is a dispute in this matter, as we have referred to above. The Eid khutbah is subject to the same rulings as the Friday khutbah, even to the point that speaking during it is haraam, but it is not obligatory to attend, whereas attendance at the Friday khutbah is obligatory, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “O you who believe! When the call for prayer on the day of Jumu’ah (Friday) is given, come to the remembrance of Allaah [Jumu’ah khutbah and prayer], and leave off business …” [al-Jumu’ah 62:9]. Attendance at the Eid khutbahs is not obligatory, and a person is allowed to leave, but if he stays he must not talk to anyone. This is what the author is referring to when he says ‘like the two Friday khutbahs’.”
One of the scholars said: “It is not obligatory to listen to the Eid khutbahs, because if it was obligatory to attend and listen to them it would be haraam to leave. But as it is permissible to leave, it is not obligatory to listen.”
Nevertheless, if talking disturbs those who are listening, it is haraam to talk because of this disturbance, not because of not listening. On this basis, if a person has a book with him during the imam’s Eid khutbah, it is permissible for him to read it, because this does not disturb anyone. But according to the madhhab followed by this author, it is obligatory to listen to the khutbah if one is present.
To go out one by one route and come back by another
Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his routes on the day of Eid.
(Reported by al-Bukhaari, 986)
It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to go out walking, and he prayed without any adhaan or iqaamah, then he would come back walking by a different route. It was said that this was so that the two different routes would testify in his favour on the Day of Resurrection, because on that Day the earth will speak about everything that was done on it, good and evil. It was also said that this was done in order to demonstrate the symbols and rituals of Islam along both routes; to pronounce the remembrance of Allaah; to annoy the hypocrites and Jews and to scare them by the number of people who were with him; to meet the people’s needs by giving fatwas, teaching them and setting an example for them to follow; to give charity to those in need; or to visit his relatives and uphold the ties of kinship.
Warning against wrongdoing
1. Some people think that Islam tells us to stay up and pray on the night of Eid, quoting an unsound hadeeth which says that “whoever stays up and prays on the night of Eid, his heart will not die on the day when hearts die.” This hadeeth was reported with two isnaads, one of which is da’eef (weak), and the other is very da’eef. Islam does not tell us to single out the night of Eid for staying up and praying; if, however, a person habitually stays up and prays at night (qiyaam), there is nothing wrong with him doing so on the night of Eid as well.
2. Mixing of men and women in some prayer-places, streets, etc. It is a pity that this happens not only in mosques but even in the most sacred of places, al-Masjid al-Haraam [in Makkah]. Many women – may Allaah guide them – go out uncovered ,wearing make-up and perfume, flaunting their adornment, when there is such serious overcrowding in the mosques – the dangers of this situation are quite obvious. So those who are in charge must organize the Eid prayers properly, by allocating separate doors and routes for women and delaying the men’s departure until the women have left.
3. Some people get together on Eid for the purpose of singing and other forms of idle entertainment, and this is not permitted.
4. Some people celebrate on Eid because Ramadaan is over and they no longer have to fast. This is a mistake, the believers celebrate at Eid because Allaah has helped them to complete the month of fasting, not because the fasting ,which some people regard as a heavy burden, is over.
We ask Allaah to accept our worship and our repentance. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad.
Praise be to Allaah
I wonder whether the fasting person continued after Ramadaan to be as he was during Ramadaan, or is he “like her who undoes the thread which she has spun, after it has become strong” [cf. al-Nahl 16:92]? I wonder whether the one who during Ramadaan was fasting, reciting and reading Qur’aan, giving and spending in charity, praying at night, making du’aa’, will he be like that after Ramadaan, or will he follow another path, I mean the path of the Shaytaan, so that he commits sin and does things that anger the Most Gracious, Most Merciful?
If a Muslim continues to have the patience to do righteous deeds after Ramadaan, this is a sign that his (fasting) has been accepted by his Lord, the Most Generous, the Bestower of blessings. If he fails to do righteous deeds after Ramadaan, and follows the ways of the Shaytaan, this is a sign of humiliation, meanness, lowly status and being deprived of the help of Allaah, as al-Hasan al-Basri said: “They were no longer of any significance to Allaah, so they committed sin. If they had mattered to Him, He would have protected them.” When a person becomes insignificant to Allaah, Allaah will no longer honour him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And whomsoever Allaah disgraces, none can honour him” [al-Hajj 22:18]
What is amazing is that during Ramadaan, you see some people who fast and pray at night, who spend in charity and worship the Lord of the Worlds, then no sooner has the month come to an end, but their nature changes completely, and they begin to have a bad attitude towards their Lord. So you see them neglecting prayer and avoiding righteous deeds, committing sins and disobeying Allaah in many different ways, keeping away from obedience towards Allaah, the Sovereign, the Holy, the One Free from all defects.
How terrible it is, by Allaah, when people only acknowledge Allaah in Ramadaan.
The Muslim should make Ramadaan an opportunity to turn over a new leaf by repenting, turning to Allaah, persisting in worshipping Allaah, always being aware that Allaah is watching at every minute of every hour. So after Ramadaan the Muslim should continue to obey Allaah and should avoid sin and evil actions, as a continuation of the way he was during Ramadaan and the things that he did then to draw closer to the Lord of creation.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And perform As‑Salaah (Iqaamat‑as‑ Salaah), at the two ends of the day and in some hours of the night [i.e. the five compulsory Salaah (prayers)]. Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds (i.e. small sins). That is a reminder (an advice) for the mindful (those who accept advice)” [Hood 11:114]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Follow a bad deed with a good deed, for it will wipe it out; and have a good attitude and good manners towards people.”
Undoubtedly the purpose for which Allaah created everyone was to worship Him Alone, with no partner or associate. This is the ultimate purpose and the highest aim, which is to attain ‘uboodiyyah (being a slave of Allaah in the truest and fullest sense). This was achieved in the most beautiful manner during Ramadaan, when we saw people going to the houses of Allaah in groups and individually, and we saw them striving to perform the obligatory prayers on time and to give in charity, competing with one another in doing good deeds. And for this let (all) those strive who want to strive (cf. al-Mutaffifeen 83:26), for they will be rewarded in sha Allaah. But there remains the case of those whom Allaah keeps firm with the word that stands firm in this world and in the Hereafter (cf. Ibraaheem 14:27). Whomever Allaah helps to be steadfast in doing righteous deeds after Ramadaan, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allaah unless and until they are followed by good deeds), but those who plot evils, theirs will be severe torment. And the plotting of such will perish” [Faatir 35:10]
Undoubtedly righteous deeds are among the acts which bring a person closer to Allaah at all times, and the Lord of Ramadaan is also the Lord of Jumaada and Sha’baan and Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram and Safar and all the other months. That is because the worship that Allaah has enjoined upon us includes five pillars, one of which is fasting, which is for a set period which has come to an end. But there remain other pillars, Hajj, prayer and zakaah, for which we are answerable to Allaah. We must perform these duties in the manner which is pleasing to Allaah, and we must strive thereby to fulfil the purpose for which we were created. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And I (Allaah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone)” [al-Dhaariyaat 51:56]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught his Companions to compete in doing good, and he said, “One dirham may weigh more with Allaah than a dinar, and the best of charity is that a man gives when he is rich.” He (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained that if the person gives charity when he is disinclined to do so and is in good health, but fears poverty, that charity will weigh heavily with Allaah in the balance of good deeds; whereas the one who delays it, then when he gets sick he starts to spend in charity here and there, fearing that his good deeds will be rejected, there is the danger that his (charity) will not be accepted – we seek refuge with Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah accepts only the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and foolishness and repent soon afterwards; it is they whom Allaah will forgive and Allaah is Ever All Knower, All‑Wise.
And of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil deeds until death faces one of them and he says: “Now I repent;” nor of those who die while they are disbelievers. For them We have prepared a painful torment” [al-Nisaa’ 4:17-18]
The pious and sincere believer should fear Allaah and strive to obey Allaah at all times, persisting in his taqwa and always striving to do good, call others to Allaah, enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil. For the believer, his days and nights in this world are storehouses, so let him see what he can deposit in them. If he deposits good things in them, it will testify in his favour before his Lord on the Day of Resurrection; if it is the opposite, then it will be a disaster for him. We ask Allaah to save us and you from that loss.
The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) said:
Among the signs of acceptance (of good deeds) is that Allaah causes one hasanah (good deed) to be followed by another, for the hasanah says, “My sister, my sister!” And the sayi’ah (evil deed) also says, “My sister, my sister!” –we seek refuge with Allaah. If Allaah has accepted a person’s Ramadaan, and he has benefited from this period of (spiritual) training and has remained steadfast in obeying Allaah, then he has joined the caravan of those who have remained steadfast and responded to Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, those who say: ‘Our Lord is Allaah (Alone),’ and then they stand firm, on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): ‘Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!
We have been your friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter. Therein you shall have (all) that your inner selves desire, and therein you shall have (all) for which you ask” [Fussilat 41:30-31]
“And whosoever takes Allaah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as Protectors, then the party of Allaah will be the victorious” [al-Maa’idah 5:56]
“Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allaah,” and thereafter stand firm (on the Islamic Faith of Monotheism), on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve” [al-Ahqaaf 46:13]
This standing firm should continue from one Ramadaan to the next, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “From one prayer to the next, from one Ramadaan to the next, from one Hajj to the next, this expiates for whatever (sins) were committed from one to the next, so long as you avoid major sins.” And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise)” [al-Nisaa’ 4:31]
The believer should join the caravan of those who stand firm and should board the ship of salvation from the time when he reaches the earliest age of discretion until he draws his last breath. He should remain in the shade of “Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah”, enjoying the blessings of Allaah. This religion is the truth and the way in which we steadfastly adhere to it in Ramadaan is that with which Allaah honours us by the bounty of His giving, His gracious blessing and His great favour, so that we might continue to pray qiyaam and to worship Him after the month of Ramadaan. Do not forget, my brother, that Allaah has blessed you with i’tikaaf, and Allaah has blessed you with giving charity, and Allaah has blessed you with fasting, and Allaah has blessed you with du’aa’ which has been accepted. Do not forget, my brother, to take care of these good deeds and this support from Allaah, and do not let them be wiped out by bad deeds. So strive to cultivate goodness and happiness on your way, and to keep company with those who remain steadfast (in Islam), and to seek Allaah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, where it will be said to you, Receive glad tidings of Paradise as wide as the heavens and the earth, prepared for the pious, for you responded to the call of Allaah; O seeker of good, continue, for Allaah has some people who will be freed from Hell, and O seeker of evil, desist. And you responded to the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), “Whoever prays at night during Ramadaan out of faith and hoping for reward, his previous sins will be forgiven. And whoever prays at night during Laylat al-Qadr out of faith and hoping for reward, his previous sins will be forgiven.”
I ask Allaah Who has blessed us and you with fasting, i’tikaaf, ‘umrah and charity to bless us with guidance, piety, and acceptance of our good deeds; may He help us to persist in doing good deeds and to remain steadfast, for persistence in doing good deeds is one of the greatest means of drawing closer to Allaah. Hence when a man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “Advise me,” he said, “Say, ‘I believe in Allaah,’ and remain steadfast.” (Agreed upon).
According to a report narrated by Ahmad, he said, “Say, I believe in Allaah,’ then remain steadfast.” [The man] said, “O Messenger of Allaah, all the people say that.” He said, “Some people who came before you said that, but they did not remain steadfast.” So the believers must continue to be steadfast in obeying Allaah:
“Allaah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allaah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allaah will cause to go astray those who are Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers), and Allaah does what He wills” [Ibraaheem 14:27 – interpretation of the meaning]
The one who is steadfast in obeying Allaah is the one whose du’aa’ will be answered, the du’aa’ which he repeats more than twenty-five times each day, “Guide us to the Straight Way” [al-Faatihah 1:6 – interpretation of the meaning], which we say in al-Faatihah. Why is it that we say and believe strongly that if we remain steadfast Allaah will forgive us, but we are too lazy to apply that in practical terms? We should fear Allaah and apply this in deed and thought and word. We should strive in the way of “ihdinaa al-siraat al-mustaqeem (Guide us to the Straight Way)”, and we should travel the route of “iyaaka na’budu wa iyyaaka nasta’een (You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything))” [al-Faatihah 1:5 – interpretation of the meaning], in the shade of “ihdinaa al-siraat al-mustaqeem (Guide us to the Straight Way)”, following the route that will lead us to Paradise the width of the heavens and the earth, whose key is Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah. I ask Allaah to grant us and you a good end.
After the end of Ramadaan, the people are divided into various types, two of the most prominent of which I will describe here. The first type are those whom you see in Ramadaan striving hard in worship. You never see them but they are prostrating or standing in prayer, or reading Qur’aan, or weeping, so much that they remind you of some of the worshippers among the salaf, and you even feel compassion for them because of the intensity of their efforts and striving. Yet hardly has the month ended, before they go back to negligence and committing sin, as if they were prisoners of that worship, so they turn their attention to their desires and become negligent and commit sins which they think will take away their distress and grief. But these poor people forget that sin is the cause of doom, because sins are like war wounds, one of which may turn out to be fatal. How often has sin prevented a person from saying Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah when in the throes of death.
After spending this entire month with faith, (reading) Qur’aan and other acts of worship, these people then backslide, Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa Billaah (there is no power and no strength except with Allaah). These are the occasional worshippers who only acknowledge Allaah on certain occasions or at times of calamity and distress, then after that there is no more obedience or worship. What a bad habit that is.
“The worshipper prayed for something that he wanted, and when the matter was done, he neither prayed nor fasted.” [Arabic poetry]
I wonder what is the point of worshipping for a whole month, if that is going to be followed by a return to dishonourable ways?
The second type are those who feel distressed at the departure of Ramadaan, because they have tasted the sweetness of being safe from sin, and the bitterness of patience became insignificant to them, because they came to realize the true nature of their weakness and need for their Master (Allaah) and their need to obey Him. They fasted in a true sense and stood in prayer at night out of love, so when they bade farewell to Ramadaan, their tears flowed and their hearts were broken. Those among them who were burdened with sin hoped to be freed from sin and ransomed from Hell, and to join the caravan of those who are accepted. Ask yourself, my brother, which of the two groups do you belong to?
By Allaah, are they the same? Praise be to Allaah, but most of them do not know. The mufassireen said, commenting on the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): ‘Each one does according to Shakilatihi (i.e. his way or his religion or his intentions)…”
[al-Israa’ 17:84] – every person acts according to his way or the character that he is used to. This is condemnation for the kaafir and praise for the believer.
You should know that the dearest of deeds to Allaah are those that are continuous, even if they are little. The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “O people, you must do whatever you can of good deeds, for Allaah does not get tired until you get tired. The most beloved of deeds to Allaah are those which are continuous, even if they are little. The family of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when they did something, they would persist in doing it.” Narrated by Muslim.
When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked about which deeds are most beloved to Allaah, he said, “Those which are continuous, even if they are little.”
‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was asked about what the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did and whether he used to do certain things on particular days. She said, “No, his good deeds were continuous. Who among you could do what the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to do?” The acts of worship prescribed in Islam are based on certain conditions which must be fulfilled, like remembrance of Allaah, Hajj and ‘Umrah and their naafil actions, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, seeking knowledge, jihaad, and other good deeds. So strive to worship continuously according to your capability.
May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions, and grant them peace.
From al-Da’wah magazine, issue no. 1774, p. 12
Praise be to Allaah.
The signs and portents of the Day of Resurrection are the things that will happen before the Resurrection takes place and will indicate that it is close at hand. They have been divided into lesser and greater signs. The lesser signs, for the most part, will occur a long time before the Resurrection begins. Some of them have happened and ended – although they may be repeated – and some of them have appeared and are ongoing, and some have not yet happened, but they will happen as the truthful one (the Prophet) (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has told us.
The major signs are serious matters, the appearance of which will indicate that the Day of Resurrection is at hand and that there is only a short time until that great Day comes.
The lesser signs of the Hour are many, and are mentioned in many saheeh ahaadeeth. We will list them together without quoting the ahaadeeth, because there is not enough room to do so here. We will provide references to trustworthy books on the topic for those who wish to know more about this matter and the evidence for these signs. These include al-Qiyaamah al-Sughra by Shaykh ‘Umar Sulaymaan al-Ashqar [this book is available in English translation under the title The Minor Resurrection, published by International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia] and Ashraat al-Saa’ah by Shaykh Yoosuf al-Waabil.
The lesser signs of the Hour include the following:
1. The sending of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
2. The death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
3. The conquest of Jerusalem.
4. The plague of Amwaas (Emmaus), which is a city in Palestine.
5. Widespread wealth and lack of need for charity.
6. The appearance of fitan (tribulations). Among the tribulations that occurred in the early years of Islam were: the killing of ‘Uthmaan (may Allaah be pleased with him), the battle of the camel and the battle of Siffeen, the emergence of the Khawaarij, the battle of al-Harrah, and the opinion that the Qur’aan is a creation.
7. The emergence of claimants to Prophethood, such as the liar Musaylimah and al-Aswad al-‘Anasi.
8. The appearance of fire in the Hijaaz, which appeared in the middle of the 7th century AH, in 654 AH. This was a great fire, which the scholars who were alive at the time of its appearance and those who came after them described in great detail. Al-Nawawi said: There appeared in our time a fire in Madeenah, in the year six hundred and fifty-four. It was a very great fire on the eastern side of Madeenah, beyond the Harrah, and knowledge of it was widespread throughout Syria and all lands. Those of the people of Madeenah who were present told me about it.
9. Loss of trust. One of the manifestations of loss of trust is people’s affairs being entrusted to those who are not qualified or able for that.
10. The taking away of knowledge and the prevalence of ignorance; the taking away of knowledge will occur with the disappearance of the scholars, as it says in al-Saheehayn.
11. The spread of zina (adultery, fornication)
12. The spread of riba (usury, interest)
13. The prevalence of musical instruments.
14. Widespread drinking of alcohol.
15. Shepherds competing in the construction of tall buildings.
16. A slave woman giving birth to her mistress, as is stated in al-Saheehayn. There are several views among the scholars as to what this means. The view favoured by Ibn Hajar is that there will be widespread disobedience among children, so that a child will treat his mother as a master treats his slave woman, with negligence and insults.
17. Widespread killing.
18. Widespread earthquakes.
19. Appearance of landslides, transformations and stones from heaven.
20. Appearance of women who are clothed yet naked.
21. Believer’s dreams coming true.
22. Widespread giving of false testimony and concealment of true testimony.
23. Large numbers of women.
24. The land of the Arabs becoming once again meadows and rivers.
25. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold.
26. Wild animals and inanimate objects will speak to people.
27. The “Romans” will increase in number and fight the Muslims.
28. The conquest of Constantinople.
The major portents of the Hour are those which were mentioned by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in the hadeeth of Hudhayfah ibn Aseed, and there are ten signs: The Dajjaal; the descent of ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary); Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj (Gog and Magog); three landslides, one in the east, one in the west and one in the Arabian Peninsula; the smoke; the rising of the sun from its place of setting; the Beast; and the fire which will drive the people to their place of gathering. These signs will appear one after another, and when the first of these signs appear, the others will come soon after.
Muslim narrated that Hudhayfah ibn Aseed al-Ghifaari (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came out to us when we were discussing. He said: “What are you discussing?” They said: “We are talking about the Hour.” He said: “It will never begin until you see ten signs before it.” He mentioned the smoke, the Dajjaal, the Beast, the rising of the sun from its place of setting, the descent of ‘Eesa ibn Maryam (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj, and three landslides, one in the east, one in the west and one in the Arabian Peninsula, and the last of that is a fire which will emerge from Yemen and drive the people to their place of gathering.
There is no saheeh text which states the order in which these signs will occur, rather the order of some of them is to be understood from the context of the texts.
Shaykh Muhammad al-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked:
Will the major portents of the Hour occur in a certain order?
The order of some of the major portents is known, and in the case of others the order is not known. Among those whose order is known are the descent of ‘Eesa ibn Maryam, the emergence of Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj, and the Dajjaal, for the Dajjaal will be sent, then ‘Eesa ibn Maryam will come down and kill him, then Ya’jooj and Ma’jooj will emerge.
Al-Safareeni (may Allaah have mercy on him) listed the order of these portents in his ‘Aqeedah, but some of the order is acceptable whilst some of it is not. But what matters is that there are major signs of the Hour and when they happen, the Hour has drawn nigh. Allaah has decreed portents of the Hour, because it is a serious event and people need to know when it is about to happen. End quote.